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Jalandhar (Punjabi Gurmukhi: ਜਲੰਧਰ), formerly Jullundur, is a city in the northwestern India state of Punjab.

The oldest city in Punjab and one of the oldest in the country, Jalandhar has seen rapid urbanisation and developed into a highly industrialised centre of commercial activity in recent years. Jalandhar was the capital of Punjab from India's independence (1947) until Chandigarh was built in 1953. On the Grand Trunk Road, it is a major rail and road junction and is 144 km northwest of the state capital, Chandigarh. The city was known as Jullundur in British India.

History

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

In ancient time, the district comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from Ravi River to Sutlej River. The city[4] is named after Jalandhar, a demon king, who is mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava (Ramayana), son of Rama. According to another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar' means area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. Another name was Trigartta which was ruled by the Katoch Dynasty, as it was waters by three rivers, Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

The modern history of Jalandhar District states that Khilafat Movement was started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure upon British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement. Jalandhar District was declared 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. After the independence of the country, however, the district was affected by communal riots and exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border, consequent upon the partition of the country.

Geography

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.

Demographics

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female. The literacy rate was 85.46 per cent

Economy

Upmarket localities include Civil lines, Dilbagh Nagar Extension, Mota Singh Nagar, Green Park, Green Model Town, Model Town, Jawahar Nagar, Gupta Colony, Guru Teg Bahadur Nagar, Urban Estate Phase I & II, New Jawahar Nagar, Defence Colony, Adarsh nagar, Adampur Doaba, J.P. Nagar, Grover Colony, Central Town etc.

Jalandhar provides goods like glass and furniture to neighbouring cities and is a hub of sports goods manufacture for international market.

Transport

By Air:

The nearest airport is Pathankot Airport at Pathankot, about 90 km and Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport at Amritsar, about 75 km (47 mi) northwest of Jalandhar. It is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including Birmingham, Dubai and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.

By Rail:

Jalandhar City railway station is well connected to other parts of the country. Jalandhar city is a major station of the Amritsar-Delhi rail link. It is very well connected to capital Delhi by daily trains like Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express and other mail/superfast express. Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extend up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

By Road:

There is a large network of bus services of Punjab, Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators. Jalandhar has many good road services.

Religious places

  •     Gurduwara Thra Sahib (Hazara Village)
  •     Gurudwara Singh Sabha (Jalandhar Cantt)
  •     Mayaan da Gurudwara (Jalandhar Cantt)
  •     Gurudwara Kakipind Rama mandi
  •     Devi Talab Mandir
  •     Imam Nasir Mausoleum and Jamma Masjid
  •     Shiv Mandir
  •     Shiv Bari Mandir
  •     Tulsi Mandir
  •     Gurdwara Chhevin Pathshahi
  •     Gurudwara Singh Sabha-Model Town
  •     Gurudwara Talhan Sahib
  •     St Mary's Cathedral Church (Jalandhar Cantt)
  •     Gurudwara Nauwi Patshahi
  •     Church of North India (CNI) Mission Compound
  •     Gurdwara Panj Tirth Sahib (Jandu Singha)
  •     Gurudwara Baba Shaheed Nihal Singh Ji Talhan
  •     Sankat Mochan Hanuman Mandir (phillar tehsil)
  •     Singh Sabha Gurudwara Sahib (chuharwali)
  •     shri Guru Ravidass Gurudwara (chuharwali)

Leisure

  •     Pushpa Gujral Science City
  •     Fun City
  •     Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Museum Khatkar Kalan
  •     Company Bagh
  •     Niku Park, Model Town
  •     Wonder Land[8]
  •     Adarsh Nagar Park
  •     PVR, BMC chowk

Education

Higher education institutions include:

  •     DAV University Jalandhar
  •     DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology
  •     CT Group of Institute, Jalandhar
  •     DAV College, Jalandhar
  •     Punjab Technical University
  •     Doaba Collage
  •     St. Soldier Management & Technical Institute
  •     Sant Baba Bhag Singh University
  •     PCMSD college for women
  •     Apeejay Institute of Management Technical Campus, Jalandhar (Punjab)[14]
  •     Trinity Collage
  •     Mehr Chand Polytechnic College
  •     B.D Arya Girls collage
  •     Lyallpur Khalsa College
  •     Lyallpur Khalsa College for Women
  •     KCL Group of Institute
  •     Mata Gujri Institute of Nursing
  •     Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences
  •     Delhi Public School[15]

Universities

  •     National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar
  •     DAV University
  •     Lovely Professional University
  •     Sant Baba Bhag Singh University
  •     Khalsa College